Learning Phrasal Verbs





“It is the task of the translator to release in his own language that pure language that is under the spell of another, to liberate the language imprisoned in a work in his re-creation of that work.”
― Walter Benjamin, Illuminations


Pronunciation rules Rule #4

Pronunciation of vowel letters.

1. Long “a” and short “a”

e.g. cap – cape

-at cat bat hat rat fat sat
-ad sad had bad mad
-ag bag wag rag tag
-an can fan ran pan
-am ram ham jam yam
-ap map nap tap

If “E” is at the end of the word, “A” is pronounced as a long vowel.
gate take rake base race face wave cage

ending in “r”
car jar tar far

2. Long “i” and short “i”

-id lid kid did bid
-ig pig rig big dig wig
-in pin tin bin fin win
-ip lip rip dip hip tip
-it hit sit pit fit kit

If “E” is at the end of the word, “I” is pronounced as a long vowel.
kite bike vine ride dime

3. Long “o” and short “o”

-og dog log fog jog hog
-op pop hop top mop
-ot hot got pot not
-ob sob cob mob job

If “E” is at the end of the word, “O” is pronounced as a long vowel.
rose hope pole

4. Long “u” and short “u”

-ut nut cut hut rut up cup put cup pup
-ub cub tub cub tub
-us bus
-un bun fun sun run
-ug bug tug mug hug

If “E” is at the end of the word, “O” is pronounced as a long vowel.
tune cube cute


Pronunciation rules Rule # 3

How “G” is pronounced in an English word.

1. When “G” is followed by “E,” “I,” or “Y,” it is pronounced as [ʤ]
gem giant gym george

2. When “G” is followed by “U,” or “A,” it is pronounced as [Ʌ], or [ӕ].
gum gun gap gas garden

Gorgeous George
Wagon danger strangle stranger


Valentine’s Story

Did you know that the original story has nothing to do with Romance, Love, Candy or Hearts?

Here we go:

The story of Valentine’s Day begins in the third century with an oppressive Roman emperor and a humble Christian Martyr.   The emperor was Claudius II.   The Christian was Valentinus.

Claudius had ordered all Romans to worship twelve gods, and had made it a crime punishable by death to associate with Christians.   But Valentinus was dedicated to the ideals of Christ; not even the threat of death could keep him from practicing his beliefs.   He was arrested and imprisoned.

During the last weeks of Valentinus’s life a remarkable thing happened.   Seeing that he was a man of learning, the jailer asked whether his daughter, Julia, might be brought to Valentinus for lessons.   She had been blind since birth.   Julia was a pretty young girl with a quick mind.   Valentinus read stories of Rome’s history to her.   He described the world of nature to her.   He taught her arithmetic and told her about God.  She saw the world through his eyes, trusted his wisdom, and found comfort in his quiet strength.

“Valentinus, does God really hear our prayers?” Julia asked one day.

“Yes, my child, He hears each one.”

“Do you know what I pray for every morning and every night?  I pray that I might see.   I want so much to see everything you’ve told me about!”

“God does what is best for us if we will only believe in Him,” Valentinus said.

“Oh, Valentinus, I do believe! I do!”  She knelt and grasped his hand.

They sat quietly together, each praying.   Suddenly there was a brilliant light in the prison cell.   Radiant, Julia screamed, “Valentinus, I can see!  I can see!”

“Praise be to God!”  Valentinus exclaimed, and he knelt in prayer.

On the eve of his death Valentinus wrote a last note to Julia, urging her to stay close to God.   He signed it, “From your Valentine.”  His sentence was carried out the next day, February 14, 270 A.D., near a gate that was later named Porta Valentini in his memory.   He was buried at what is now the Church of Praxedes in Rome.   It is said that Julia planted a pink-blossomed almond tree near his grave.   Today, the almond tree remains a symbol of abiding love and friendship.   On each February 14, Saint Valentine’s Day, messages of affection, love, and devotion are exchanged around the world.”


Pronunciation rules Rule #2

 How “C” is pronounced in an English word.

“C” is pronounced either as [s] or [k].
city country cider circle

1. When “C” is followed by “E” or “Y,” it is pronounced [c].
cent cell cellar center ice
Cycle cyclone cypress

2. When “C” is followed by “o”, “u” “a,” it is pronounced as [k].
country cold
cup cut curb
can cat cap
couple computer

The city has cement.
The country has corn.
We cycle in the city and drive our car in the country.


Colours of Africa


For many, Africa is regarded as a place of mystery and negative images, where reports of natural disasters and civil strife dominate media attention, with relatively little publicity given to any of the continent s more positive attributes. Africa has at last begun to receive the depth of interest it has long deserved, in the shape of debates about trade, aid and

 debt, the Make Poverty History campaign, and the UK’s Commission on Africa . But, behind the superficial media facade, Africa is a diverse, complex and dynamic place, with a rich history and a colonial engagement that, although short-lived, was fundamental in determining the long-term future of the continent.

At the start of the second decade of the twenty-first century, when the world is engulfed in a major financial crisis, Africa has the dubious distinction of being the world s poorest continent.( Tony Binns)


Languages of Africa

There are 1,250 to 2,100 and by some counts over 3,000 languages spoken natively in Africa, in several major language families:

  • Afroasiatic is spread throughout the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahel
  • Nilo-Saharan is centered on Sudan and Chad (disputed validity)
  • Niger–Congo (Bantu and non-Bantu) covers West, Central, Southeast and Southern Africa
  • Khoe is concentrated in the deserts of Namibia and Botswana
  • Austronesian is spoken in Madagascar.
  • Indo-European is spoken on the southern tip of the continent.

There are several other small families and language isolates, as well as obscure languages that have yet to be classified. In addition, Africa has a wide variety of sign languages, many of which are language isolates.


Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Africa



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